Top Level Structures: Cause and effect

Cause and effect is a common way to organize information in a text.

Paragraphs structured as cause and effect explain reasons why something happened or the effects of something.

Paragraphs can be ordered as causes and effects or as effects and then causes. The cause and effect text structure is generally used in expository and persuasive writing modes.

To put it another way: when an author gives reasons why something happened, he or she is explaining what caused an effect (reasons are causes and the thing that happens is the effect).

Also, when a writer explains the results of an action, he or she is explaining the effects of a cause (results are effects and the thing that occurs is the cause).

The cause and effect text structure is used so commonly that you have probably written a paragraph using it and not noticed.

Signal words that might help:

because, as a result, resulted, caused, affected, since, due to, effect.

Example: of Cause and effect

Many people think that they can get sick by going into cold weather improperly dressed; however, illnesses are not caused by temperature- they are caused by germs. So while shivering outside in the cold probably won’t strengthen your immune system, you’re more likely to contract an illness indoors because you will have a greater exposure to germs.

In the above example, the paragraph explains how germs cause illnesses. The germs are the cause in the paragraph and the illness is the effect.

cause and effect


Example 2: of Cause and effect

Students are not allowed to chew gum in my class. While some students think that I am just being mean, there are many good reasons for this rule. First, some irresponsible students make messes with their gum. They may leave it on the bottoms of desks, drop it on the floor, or put it on other people’s property. Another reason why I don’t allow students to chew gum is because it is a distraction. When they are allowed to chew gum, students are more worried about having it, popping it, chewing it, and snapping it then they are in listening, writing, reading, and learning. This is why I don’t allow students to chew gum in my class.

cause and effect 2


Think before you share!


LI: Today we are learning about being safe on the internet and why it’s important to think carefully before we post anything online.

SC: This will help us to know what is OK to post on our classroom blogs, chat in online games and other social media. It will also help us to know what is NOT OK to post!

Let’s watch these videos together…



Now we will watch the videos again and take some notes to help us remember what important information they told us.

Pencil and paper



You will need a worksheet and a pencil to take your notes.

Top Level Structures: Sequencing

LI: We are learning that writers use “top-level” structures to organise their writing


  • I am able to name the 5 top level structures

  • I can identify the structures of non-fiction texts

  • I can find the “signal words” in non-fiction texts


Sequence is when the author uses the order of events, or chronology, to inform readers about events or content.

The events may be organised by:

  • time or date
  • arranging events as a series of steps
  • following a list-like structure

Chronological sequencing is commonly used in nonfiction texts.

In fiction text it is also arranged in time-order sequence but signals or markers may not be as clear.

A sequence occurs even if an author uses flashbacks or flash-forwards.

Definition of Flashbacks: when the author makes the reader look back at an event

Definition of Flash forwards: when the author makes the reader look forward  to an event

Signal Words: These words in texts sometimes help us to understand which top level structure it is.

after, afterwards, ago already, always, at last, at that time, at the same time, before, during, eventually, finally, first, first of all, following, further, immediately, initially, in the first place, in the meantime, in that moment, in that instant, last, lastly, later, now, not long after, next, once, presently, second, secondly, sometimes, soon, soon after, subsequently, suddenly, then, to begin with, today, until, while, PLUS: specific time indicators, such as names of days, months or years, times of day, etc.



We are going to look at this example:



Lets practice:

Before applying the screen protector, clean the surface of your phone’s screen with a soft cloth. Once the surface of your screen is clean, remove the paper backing on the screen protector. Evenly apply the sticky side of the screen protector to your phone’s screen. Smooth out any air bubble trapped on between the protector and the phone screen. Enjoy the added protection.


Order of operation

We have focussed a lot on the Order of Operation:

Brackets – Division – Multiplication – Addition – Subtraction

Have a go at the questions we have been focusing on-

  1. (52/2) – 5 =
  2. (45/5) + 12 =
  3. 31 – (3×3)=
  4. (33/11) + 4 x 2=
  5. 12×3 – 6 + 3 =

There are a lot more!

Reading: Sustained Reading and Note taking

How long can you read for? 

We are focusing on increasing our ability to read to 40 minutes. This is going to be done through out term 1, building each day, so that by the end of the term we will be able to read independently.

We want:

  • Focus on the text
  • No distractions
  • Quiet areas
  • Being timed
  • Working on individual goals

Answer? Answer? Answer? Answer? Answer? Answer? Answer? Answer? Answer? Answer?

Note taking is?

What is note taking?

What are the tools we can use?

  • Combination notes: 


  • Webbing:


  • 2 Column notes:


  • 3 Column notes: 


  • GIST:


  • Dot points: